Quality and Safety in Surgery: Challenges and Opportunities

      Surgery was among the earliest of specialties to adopt quality measurement programs. The work of Ernest Codman, MD, and others in the early 20th century formed the basis of the modern hospital quality and accreditation movement. At the national level, the American College of Surgeon's century-old focus on quality improvement (QI) has culminated in several national registries and quality programs that have opened the door to systematic and effective QI in surgical outcomes.
      • Stremple J.F.
      The historical evolution of the Department of Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.
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